Jul 20, 2021
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Title: Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland
Author: Lewis Carroll
Reading Reference: Gutenberg eBook
Audio file: (audiopress)
Audio editor: alisan publishing
Co-publishing: Amazon, まぐまぐ
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Alice in Wonderland" is a fairy tale classic, but do you know how many "Alice" only understand the funny hidden inside?
What we want you to know is that, in fact, the story's prototype, Alice's Adventures Under Ground, was initially intended for only three audiences: Alice Liddell and her two sisters. They share the same name as the protagonist.
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, as it is known, was the inspiration for many television movies, Disneyland facilities, video games, and comics before Disney adapted it into a film. But long before these works were released, "Alice in Wonderland" was just an afternoon diversion for a young girl on a Thames River cruise.
The story's prototype, Alice's Adventures Under Ground, was initially intended for an audience of only three: Alice Liddell, who shares the title character's name, and her two sisters. Lewis Carroll wrote the story at Alice's request, and to make these little girls laugh, many Victorian jokes were inserted exclusively about Carroll and Liddell and the Liddell sisters.
Thanks to 150 years of research, we can now share these jokes with the Riddle sisters.
In July 1862, 10-year-old Alice Liddell and her sisters, Lorina and Edith, were boating with their longtime friend Charles Dodgson. Charles Dodgson was a mathematician who began publishing under the pseudonym "Louis Caro." Caro and a friend were taking the Liddell sisters on a picnic to the town of Godstow, and on the way, Caro told the girls a story as they rowed. Caro had a crush on Alice (he had a good friendship with many little girls, which disturbed many readers) and named the story's heroine after her.
Dodgson called his original manuscript "Alice's Underground Adventure" because the story begins with the heroine falling down a rabbit hole. Carolyn Vega, associate director of literary manuscripts at the Morgan Library, where a special exhibition on Alice recently closed, said that using geological constructs as children's entrances to fantasy worlds was a common technique in Victorian fairy tales. Charles Kingsley's (Charles Kingsley) novel "Water-Babies" (Water-Babies), for example, in the story, the protagonist fell into the river will enter the fantasy world (Fairyland).
A. L. Taylor, in describing Louis Caro remembered: "The White Knight" (The White Knight), it guessed that the book Mad Hatter (Mad Hatter), whose watch only shows The reason for this is that Wonderland is closer to the center of the earth than outside, so it makes sense to use a lunar calendar than a solar one. Taylor argues that even underground, the moon's cycle will still be consistent. Still, underground, the position of the sun is meaningless, and the lunar and solar calendars are precisely two days apart in each month. As Martin Gardner wrote in The Annotated Alice, "It's hard to believe that it was all in Carlo's head in the first place.
Caro thought of several different titles to publish the story, such as Alice's Golden Hour, Alice's Hour in Elfland, and Alice Among the Goblins. Finally, Caro chose the title Alice in Wonderland.
Caro created many of his own words in the book, such as chortle, snark, and galumph, which we still use today, but he was not the first to use the word "Wonderland." Peter Pindar's book A Complimentary Epistle to James Bruce, Esq.: the Abyssinian Traveler appears 75 years before Alice in Wonderland was written. The word appears in the book A Complimentary Epistle to James Bruce, Esq. But Vega says Wonderland was still very much a vocabulary word in Peter Pindar's day, and it is to Caro's credit that the term has become synonymous with the "land of wonder.
In every way, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is a far cry from Alice in Wonderland, but not primarily because of the text. The content of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland has been changed for publication (for example, Carlo joins the Mad Hatter's tea party, and Alice and the other animals run around in circles in a "pointless race, caucus-race"). Still, most of the story remains the same.
While the first draft does not feature Tenniel's distinctive illustrations, it features Caro's sketches of dark-haired Alice. However, neither Caro's nor Tenniel's illustrations were modeled after the real Alice Liddell; in fact, Tenniel once said he did not deliberately try to look like anyone because he never used models for his paintings. Caro attempted to draw a portrait of the honest Alice on the last page of the manuscript, but he was not satisfied and pasted a photograph of Alice over the sketch, which was not discovered until the 1970s.
And most importantly, Alice's Adventures Underground is entirely different from the finished product's intended audience. Initially, the story was designed purely as a diversion for the Liddell sisters so that many metaphors may read as abrupt and strange to modern readers. Still, they are pleasant and slyly funny to the Liddell sisters.
For example, anyone reading Mock Turtle's recollection that his "slow-talking teacher" at school was an eel who taught him to "Drawling," "Stretching," and "Fainting in Coils" would probably giggle. Still, only the Liddell sisters would know that the eel was referring to their John Ruskin, a tall, thin man who resembled an eel, was the teacher who taught them to draw, sketch and paint in oils.
The girls may recognize who Dodo is referring to, none other than Louis Caro himself.
Carlo chooses Dodo because he suffers from a stutter and occasionally pronounces his last name as "Dodo, Dodgson. The dodo's companions: the duck, the parrot, and the eagle, each represent a passenger on the same boat as Carlo when he first tells the story: his friend Robinson Duckworth and Alice's sisters Lorina (the parrot, Lory) and Edith (the eagle, Eaglet).
In the Dormouse story, Lorina, Edith, and Alice reappear as the three sisters living in the treacle-well, with the nagging mouse perhaps representing Mary Prickett, the Riddle sisters' governess.
As to who inspired Caro to portray the Mad Hatter, there is still much debate. For a while, it was thought that the Mad Hatter - or at least, that's what Tennille's illustration looks like - was based on Theophilus Carter. Carter was a cabinetmaker in Oxford and the inventor of the "alarm bed" that threw its users to the floor with impudence.
This hypothesis is based on the 1930s - sixty years after the publication of Alice in Wonderland - in the Times of London and is too plausible to be verified because of the use of the mad watchmaker as the prototype for the Mad Hatter. Unfortunately, there is no evidence of a relationship between Carter and Carol or Carter and Alice Liddell, and there is no evidence that Carter built a clock bed.
Perhaps it is more likely that the Mad Hatter was based on Thomas Randall, the future Mayor of Oxford, to whom Alice was a frequent guest and occasionally allowed Alice to walk his dog, Rover.
Many of the lines in Alice in Wonderland may appear to modern readers as mere whimsy. Still, in reality, they are a mockery of the nursery rhymes that Victorian students had to memorize. In the book, when Alice recites "How Doth The Little Crocodile," she is trying to remember Isaac Watts's "The Sluggard," a didactic poem that begins, "The little bee is busy in and out / And works hard every hour," and Watts's The Sluggard, which warns of the dangers of laziness, is also satirized in the book as "The Sound of Lobsters.
"Father William, You're Old" is also adapted from Robert Southey's didactic poem "The Old Man's Comforts And How He Gained Them. Unlike Father William, the older man in Southey's poetry does not stand upside down or hold an eel to the tip of his nose but instead tells the young questioner to stay healthy, think about the future, and keep God in mind. Vega explained that the Liddell sisters would know more about such jokes than the reader since they are familiar with such insipid sermons.
Incidentally, Caro continues his tradition of satire in Through The Looking-Glass, adding his own purely original touches, such as The Walrus and the Carpenter-except that his parodies are a bit The Walrus and the Carpenter "Haddocks' Eyes" has hints of William Wordsworth's "Resolution and Independence," as well as the sound of one of Thomas Moore's poems.
Another poem is a parody of Sir Walter Scott's "Bonnie Dundee." Although the Liddell sisters would not have known the origin of "Jabberwocky," Caro's family would have. Caro was just a teenager when he wrote "Jabberwocky," When it was first published in a magazine, it was accompanied by an illustration drawn by Caro's brother. This poem, carefully encrypted in secret, requires a code of words similar to the one provided by Humpty Dumpty in the book.
Alice in Wonderland also has a final mystery gift for Alice: if the reader pays attention to the text clues for the moon and day dates, they will find that the story begins on May 4th: Alice Riddle's birthday.
Of course, you don't have to be Alice Liddell, or even a Victorian schoolboy, to enjoy Alice's adventures. While Caro's didactic poems are now forgotten, Caro's unintelligible lyrics are still well known. Even if readers don't know who Thomas Randall or Thea Carter is, Caro's Mad Hatter and other charming characters remain undiminished.
Alice in Wonderland is a genuinely immortal classic. But before it was a classic, it was a whimsical, intimate joke made for a beloved little girl.