What is the difference between computer organization and computer architecture?

[Computer organization studies] how various circuits and components fit together to create working computer systems. (...) Computer organization addresses issues such as control signals (how the computer is controlled), signaling methods, and memory types. It encompasses all physical aspects of computer systems. It helps us to answer the question: How does a computer work?

The study of computer architecture, on the other hand, focuses on the structure and behavior of the computer system and refers to the logical aspects of system implementation as seen by the programmer. Computer architecture includes many elements such as instruction sets and formats, operation codes, data types, the number and types of registers, addressing modes, main memory access methods, and various I/O mechanisms. The architecture of a system directly affects the logical execution of programs. Studying computer architecture helps us to answer the question: How do I design a computer?

What is an ISA?

The computer architecture for a given machine is the combination of its hardware components plus its instruction set architecture (ISA). The ISA is the agreed-upon interface between all the software that runs on the machine and the hardware that executes it. The ISA allows you to talk to the machine.

What is the importance of the Principle of Equivalence of Hardware and Software?

Anything that can be done with software can also be done with hardware, and anything that can be done with hardware can also be done with software.

Name the three basic components of every computer.

At the most basic level, a computer is a device consisting of three pieces:

1. A processor to interpret and execute programs

2. A memory to store both data and programs

3. A mechanism for transferring data to and from the outside world

To what power of 10 does the prefix giga- refer? What is the (approximate) equivalent power of 2?

10^9 for giga in base 10 and 2^30 for giga in base 2.

To what power of 10 does the prefix micro- refer? What is the (approximate) equivalent power of 2?

10^-6 for micro in base 10 and 2^-20 for micro in base 2.

What unit is typically used to measure the speed of a computer clock?

Hertz

Name two types of computer memory.

sdram, rdram, sldram, registers, cache

What is the mission of the IEEE?

The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of the professions of electronic and computer engineering. The IEEE actively promotes the interests of the worldwide engineering community by publishing an array of technical literature. The IEEE also sets standards for various computer components, signaling protocols, and data representation, to name only a few areas of its involvement. The IEEE has a democratic, albeit convoluted, procedure established for the creation of new standards. Its final documents are well respected and usually endure for several years before requiring revision.

What is the full name of the organization that uses the initials ISO? Is ISO an acronym?

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is the entity that coordinates worldwide standards development, including the activities of ANSI with BSI among others. ISO is not an acronym, but derives from the Greek word, isos, meaning “equal.” The ISO consists of over 2,800 technical committees, each of which is charged with some global standardization issue. Its interests range from the behavior of photographic film to the pitch of screw threads to the complex world of computer engineering.

ANSI is the acronym used by which organization?

American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

What is the name of the Swiss organization that devotes itself to matters concerning telephony, telecommunications, and data communications?

The International Telecommunications Union (ITU).

Who is known as the father of computing and why?

Charles Babbage invented the Difference Engine.

What was the significance of the punch card?

Getting data into the machine.

Name two driving factors in the development of computers.