Russian for Self-Learners
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Твори́тельный паде́ж (pdf)

Apr 27, 2023

Dear friends 👋, this table with examples of singular nouns in the Instrumental case is mainly focused on their spelling and stress.

As you can see from the table, the Instrumental case-forms of SINGULAR nouns take these inflexions:

👉 -о́й/-ёй (stressed) or -ой/-ей (unstressed) for all nouns ending in their Nominative case-forms in -а/-я (1st declension);

👉 -о́м/-ём (stressed) or -ом/-ем (unstressed) for masculine nouns not ending in -а/-я in their Nominative case-forms and for neuter gender nouns (2nd declension);

👉 -ю (unstressed) for feminine nouns ending in their Nominative case-form in the soft sign -ь (3rd declension).Available in PDF:

PLURAL noun forms are not included in the post for the reason of their simplicity. In short, plural nouns (all genders) in the Instrumental case take these inflexions:

👉 -ами after all hard consonants (ножа́ми, о́кнами, рука́ми), including the two soft fricatives «ч» and «щ» (плеча́ми, ро́щами), and  

👉 -ями after all soft consonants other than «ч» and «щ» (деревня́ми, моря́ми, рубля́ми), as well as after vowels (алле́ями, зда́ниями, геро́ями) and after the soft sign -ь (се́мьями, кры́льями, друзья́ми).

✔️ EXCEPTIONS: детьми́, людьми́ 

For all the three declension types for nouns (i.e. for the inflexions taken by nouns in all the other cases, singular and plural), please, see:

 Thank you. 

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