Protein is macronutrient that the body breaks down into amino acids.

There are 21 amino acids

Some we can make from other amino acids.

There are 9 essential amino acids and 6 conditionally essential.

Proteins are not all the same

Some proteins are either; 

1. Glucogenic, broken down to become glucose.

2. Some are ketogenic

Get broken down make ketones 

3. Some proteins can do both.

Protein gets broken down and sent to the liver. Protein synthesis is part of a mechanism of rebuilding tissue.

Insulin governs protein synthesis.

Major roles of protein

Tissue repair substrate

Tissue building substrate as a hormone or as an enzyme

Protein's primary role is as a nutrient needed by the body to build.

It's not used for energy in most cases.

There are three energy sources. Protein is a tiny part, the other 2 can be stored and used later. 

  • Fat...endless capacity

  • Sugar...as glycogen, finite capacity

Muscles sort of store amino acids. But it's not really a fuel source.

Protein metabolism

When protein is used for energy by-products are toxic. Uric acid, oxalic acid etc ammonia too

This is usually during prolonged starvation

The human body uses between 0.8 to 2 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight per day

Range depends on what you're doing physically.

How much protein do I need?

The food guidelines I'e very limited in their recommendations for protein intake. As an example I weigh 80kg so according to the guidelines I need roughly 160grams of protein daily. But it can be more! And for me it far exceeds that. A standard Ribeye is about 340 grams and some days I eat two of those and four eggs in the morning. Dr Shawn Baker states the following in his book the Carnivore Diet

I’m going to throw out some general numbers; don’t take these as gospel. I’m merely giving you some ballpark starting figures; they aren’t concrete figures that you have to apply:

• Males: Around 2 pounds of meat per day

• Females: Around 1.5 pounds of meat per day When you first start, aim for the suggested amount and then adjust as needed. For instance, many small females can put away 4 to 5 pounds of meat in a day without a problem.

Baker, Shawn. The Carnivore Diet (p. 112). Victory Belt Publishing. Kindle Edition.

Especially when building strength and muscle. I go by hunger and satiety.

My body fat percentage is where I want it. If I were overweight I'd aim to eat the same protein as I do now as otherwise I'm eating for an overweight person!

In a fat adapted person should get sugar from glycogen and then glycerol

For sedentary people 0.8g per lean mass kilo.

Don't want to use your 'fat self' as the weight to calculate protein consumption

Amino Acids

Some are left out of protein shakes as they don't do well in solution. So do not think protein shakes are the answer, real food is the best way to get your protein.

  • Eggs

  • Beef

  • Lamb

  • Salmon

  • Mackerel

  • Shrimp

  • Duck

  • Liver

    Are all good sources, this list could gone on for much longer!

Non-essential amino acids...

are the ones that your body can produce. You don’t have to bother about getting them from your food. They are a total of 11:

Arginine

Alanine

Cysteine

Glutamate

Aspartate

Glycine

Proline

Serine

Tyrosine

Glutamine

Asparagine

All these 11 amino acids have their function in your body. However, 7 of them are referred to as “conditionally essential”. This is because they may become essential in some situations.

When can these amino acids become essential?

This happens when you are under so much stress or if there is a disease. These may prevent your body from making these amino acids. They may also limit its ability to produce them.

In such a case, you will need to get these amino acids from food sources. You can also get them through amino acid supplements"

There is no meaningful storage for excess protein

So adding in extra things like protein shakes can possibly convert almost immediately to sugar and then fat.

Egg has pretty much the correct ratio of nutrients. It makes a chicken